The definitive South African trophy Bass fishing site

  Page Revised: 29 March 2007




Please read this important Article:

Should Bass be regarded as a "problem species" in South Africa? by Jacques Wolmarans



1. Stocking Programme

If you want to stock a dam with Bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus), it is best to start with virgin waters containing no other fish population. Stock only fingerlings initially and not mature fish.


First, Minnows (Barbus paludinosus), at least 3 000 - 5 000/ Hectare of surface area of water, to form a forage base, then Redbreast Kurper (Tilapia rendalli), Vlei Kurper (Tilapia sparrmanii), Dwarf Kurper/ Southern Mouthbrooder (Hemihaplochromis philander) or Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) or a combination of these (1 000 total/ Hectare) and, finally, the Bass (250 - 500/ Hectare) at least 3 - 6 months after the other fish. These Bass stocking rates are for fingerlings or fry.


A healthy dam with a good forage base will, generally, not be able to handle more that 100 mature Bass/ Hectare. Overstocking Bass or "Bass-heavy" waters will result in small and stunted Bass - probably the last thing you want!


If you wait 6 months (or slightly longer) before stocking the Bass fingerlings, the minnows and kurper will establish themselves and breed, ensuring plentiful fodder for the young, ravenous Bass fingerlings. Just stocking Bass on their own with no other fodder fish will result in your Bass not reaching their full potential in terms of size - the Bass population will be large in number, but small and stunted in size.


Remember that Bass fingerlings are only available in numbers around November and December, so plan accordingly. Late spawnings may occur naturally (depending upon weather conditions) or be induced, so you may be able to obtain some Bass fingerlings even in January or February, in some years, but don't count on it!


Yellowfish (smallmouth (Labeobarbus aeneus), small scale (Labeobarbusarbus polylepis), large scale (Labeobarbus marequensis), Natal scaly (Labeobarbus natalensis) or Cape witvis (Labeobarbus andrewi)) depending on the area, may also be stocked with Bass. Apart from helping to establish or re-establish the indigenous yellowfish in waters, the species of yellowfish mentioned above, will breed and small yellowfish will be very beneficial to Bass as fodder as they have a slimmer profile than kurper and also do not possess the sharp, spiny fins of kurper. As yellowfish grow slowly and are usually only available in March or April, plan and stock accordingly. Actually, it would not be a bad idea to stock yellowfish annually for a time (once a year for at least 3 years running) as they are relatively cheaply available (see below) and any large yellows that escape predation by the Bass, will grow to about 6kg and take lures. They are excellent sportfish in their own right. Yellowfish should also never compete unduly with, or displace, Bass.


For photos and further details in respect of the common Bass "fodder fish" mentioned on this page, click here.


If desired, after about 2 - 3 years after the initial Bass stocking, Rainbow Trout fingerlings (depending upon the water temperatures in your area and your budget) can provide excellent additional forage for the Bass. In the quest for Bass of trophy proportions, hatchery trout will be easy prey and ensure extraordinary growth, trout having a higher oil (fat) percentage than bream or yellowfish. Trout will also not compete with or displace Bass and will not breed naturally in most waters, requiring at least annual stocking of trout. Some trophy Bass addicts in warm areas will go so far as to stock hatchery trout every winter as "snacks" for their Bass regardless of whether the trout will survive the hot summers! As the water warms, the trout become a little sluggish making them easy prey for big Bass. The stocking of hatchery trout in California, USA, is widely credited and accepted as being the reason California produces such large numbers of huge Florida strain Bass. To read more about the history of Florida strain Bass stocking in California, click here


Even Northern strain Bass in cold climates can benefit from stocking trout - the Massachusetts State record (most probably pure Northern strain) Bass is over 15 lb. "Put and take" hatchery trout seem to be the key in pushing up the weight of Bass in any waters where trout can survive at least for part of the year!


MORE about the benefits of hatchery-bred Rainbow Trout for Bass: In waters in South Africa and Zimbabwe, as in Mexico, the various bream (genus: Tilapia, Oreochromis and Serranchromis) are the primary Bass forage. These bream are all generally saucer-shaped with sharp and spiny dorsal and pectoral fins. Their flesh is less oily and rich than that of the salmonids like trout.

So what am I getting at? Salmon oil (and, probably, trout oil too) is rich in CLA (conjugated linoleic acids), what nutritionists call the "good fats" which can actually help you put on muscle! CLA has been proven to increase lean body mass in fish, mammals and humans. I really think the CLA-containing trout is the key to big Bass.

In Mexico, Bass over 13lb are very rare. The same thing in South Africa and Zimbabwe. The common denominator: "Lean" and "dry" bream forage. Hey, not even Florida or Texas produces the number of really big Bass that California does. (As far as I know, Florida and Texas Bass waters also don't stock trout). The difference must be the trout! Trout flesh is "fat" and "oily" compared to bream flesh and must contain way more CLA.

Something else about bream is that in waters in South Africa and Zimbabwe it is fairly common to see dead Bass floating with large bream stuck in their gullets - the saucer-shaped bream bodies and strong spiny fins preventing them from being completely swallowed by the Bass. Trout, on the other hand, have slimmer body profiles and are soft and slippery and probably easier to swallow for Bass. Plus, a hatchey-bred pellet-fed trout is not the "brightest" fish around!


As a cautionary note, some trout "purists" would probably throw a fit if you told them you were going to feed trout to your Bass, so just get the trout and don't bother to explain! Sadly, live trout costs a lot and stocking must take place regularly as they will not breed, let alone survive year round in most South African waters. BUT I'm convinced trout forage is the key to exceptional Bass growth! Scroll right down this page to find out where to get live trout.

Under no circumstances stock Carp or Catfish (Barbel) with Bass - also be wary of Blue Kurper (Oreochromis mossambicus), Nile Kurper (Niloticus) and Nembwe (Robustus) which may compete unduly with Bass, especially in warmer climates and smaller waters. There are, however, isolated cases where Bass have done well with small populations of Carp and Blue Kurper in larger bodies of water (usually larger than 20 Hectares), but problems may be expected to arise for Bass where either Carp or Blue Kurper become the dominant species, especially in smaller bodies of water like ponds and farm dams. It is extremely difficult to establish a viable Bass population where Carp and/or Blue Kurper are already dominant in a certain water.


The presence of cormorants and otters are not conducive to establishing a successful fishery. Take decisive appropriate action.



2. Ongoing Management Plan

Also remember to implement an appropriate and ongoing management plan for your pond or dam. For the first 2 years after the initial Bass stocking, don't fish - leave the fish to get on with things undisturbed. After about 3 years, you can start fishing - definitely harvest some fodder fish you catch, but practise "catch and release" with the Bass.


After time (probably not sooner than about 5 - 6 years after the initial Bass stocking), it will be necessary to "harvest" some Bass if you want Bass of trophy size, but do this intelligently and consider implementing what is called a "slot limit".


For example, keep all Bass caught which measure more than 15cm and less than 32cm. Bass 15cm and smaller are released as large Bass will eat small Bass and some surviving small Bass will ensure a new future generations of Bass. Bass larger than 32cm (in waters containing numbers of large Florida strain Bass, this upper length limit can be increased) are released as these bigger Bass have all the potential for reaching massive size. It makes no sense whatsoever to remove 2kg and 3kg Bass (or larger!) from any water. A "slot limit" should not be left in place indefinitely, but must be reviewed again after some time and it may then be necessary to return to a policy of 100% "catch and release". The key is proper management!


Also monitor concentrations and species of fodder fish and water plants and take timeous corrective action when necessary. Too many Bream (Kurper) of any species will eventually interfere with Bass reproduction and nesting. It may help to stock some additional Bass fingerlings at a rate of about 250/ Hectare of surface area of water each Spring for 2 - 3 subsequent years running after the initial stocking, then at intervals of every 3 years or so.


Allow your Bass to "tell" you how to manage them: Bass with smallish heads (relatively speaking) and fat rugby ball-shaped bodies show obvious signs of growing fast and being well-fed. Colours will also be vivid and the Bass should fight well on a line. Longish thin looking Bass with a very large head in relation to body size obviously indicate a lack of food, due to an absence of appropriate fodder fish and/or an overpopulation of Bass. Large numbers of small, stunted ravenous fish also point to these mentioned problems which will require drastic measures to correct (such as intensive harvesting or "culling" of smaller Bass or moving them to other waters and stocking of adult fodder fish which will survive predation by the Bass as well as stocking large numbers of fingerling fodder fish - about ten times the usual stocking rate referred to above). Neglected problems can be difficult and time-consuming to correct. Rather manage waters correctly from the start.


After about 7 years after the initial Bass stocking, consider introducing some new genes into your Bass gene pool. This can be done by carefully introducing mature Bass of known Florida strain origin or any mature Bass of 5kg and over into your water. Bass of this size will almost certainly have Florida strain genes, but will be difficult to come by - but then, Bassers are generally very resourceful folk! Some of these mature fish will adapt and flourish, some may not. Remember that a healthy dam with a good forage base will, generally, not be able to handle more that 100 mature Bass/ hectare. Overstocking Bass or "Bass-heavy" waters will result in small and stunted Bass - probably the last thing you want!


Transport mature fish in large plastic drums or coolers (preferably with rounded corners to prevent injury) that have been well cleaned out with coarse rock salt. Do not overcrowd (the general rule of thumb formula is no more than 100kg of fish/ 1 000 litres of water with normal aeration). Aerate water continuously with 12V aerators connected to your deep cycle trolling motor battery. Normal aerators will push out air (only about 20% oxygen) into the water.


Even  better, use pure (100%) oxygen gas (get oxygen cylinders from oxygen supply companies such as Afrox or Air Products) and blow the oxygen into the water through an airstone to break up the bubbles and facilitate the uptake of oxygen by the water. Add 1 Tablespoon of coarse rock salt to every 20 - 30 litres of water (helps with electrolyte balance and will prevent infection), or else add some Catch and Release. Keep fish cool - add ice to the water (make sure ice is made with borehole or dam water and not tap water!) or float plastic freezer ice bricks in ziplock plastic bags (to ensure chemicals do not perhaps leak out) on top of water.


1. Go for the "medical oxygen" or UHP (ultra high purity) oxygen in cylinder sizes 4,5kg or 14,2kg. The 14,2kg cylinder will last about 8 hours.

2. To get an appropriate airstone and airline tubing to connect the airstone to the oxygen cylinder, try a pet shop specialising in tropical fish or visit:; or

In relation to aeration for transporting mature fish, an exciting alternative to the pure oxygen gas mentioned above is the Aqua Innovations Pure Oxygen Aerator originally designed for livewell use and operating on 12V DC (your deep cycle battery). Definitely check this out for your livewell too!


The Aqua Innovations "Magnum" Aerator will provide pure oxygen (with an oxygen saturation rate of greater than 80% dissolved oxygen in 7 minutes) to 35 - 120 litres of water. Buy online from: or Concentrations of fish for holding or transportation may therefore be increased as opposed to using normal aeration which results in a far lower concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water. (Just don't add coarse rock salt or Catch and Release to the water when using the Aqua Innovations Aerator - it is not necessary as the oxygen levels will already be optimal and the added salt may corrode the unit.)


Click to read an interesting article about the importance of oxygen levels (in relation to other factors such as water temperature and salt balance) in keeping fish alive or helping them to recover. Oxygen level is most definitely the single most critical factor.


Also use the above methods to transport fodder fish (Vlei Kurper (Tilapia sparrmanii)) to Bass waters.


If you do not have access to mature Bass, introduce large numbers (about ten times the normal stocking rate) of known Florida strain fingerlings to revitalise the gene pool in existing Bass waters - the majority will be gobbled up by the larger Bass, but some will survive, grow and refresh the gene pool!



3. Possible Bass growth rates

So, what type of growth rates can you expect when stocking Bass in accordance with the principles set out above? Firstly, remember to stock only Florida strain Bass. This strain can attain weights of 9kg plus.


If there are some existing Northern strain Bass in the waters you plan to stock, do not be too concerned. Stock Floridas anyway to improve the existing gene pool, but larger numbers than referred to above to offset the expected predation by the existing Bass population. The hybrid offspring of Northern strain and Florida strain Bass could reach 7kg, whereas a realistic limit for a Northern strain Bass is around 4kg.


Any number of additional Florida strain Bass or fingerlings in waters containing only the Northern strain will bring about some beneficial improvement over time. Better to do at least something positive than nothing at all!


Optimum Florida Bass Growth rates example from

Date of stocking: 1” – 2” fingerling

1 year after stocking: 15”: 2lb (!)

15 months after stocking: 17”: 3lb (!!)


These Bass referred to above were stocked in the USA, but at least similar growth rates may be expected locally.


Bear in mind that Charles Norman in his book, Bass Fishing in Southern Africa, states that both Northern and Florida strain Bass show similar growth rates for about the first two years after which the Floridas seem to experience accelerated growth from about the third year.


All considered, it would therefore not be unrealistic to expect Bass to gain weight at a rate of 1kg per year when conditions are favourable! Under normal conditions, 500g per year (roughly about "a pound a year") should be the least to expect. Bass may be expected to live for a minimum of 8 years to a maximum of about 12 - 15 years, the higher ages being attained in colder climates. In warmer climates like Southern Africa, Bass have a longer growing season and should put on more weight in a single season compared to a Bass living in a colder environment.


This photo shows what you can expect from your own pond or dam

if you follow appropriate stocking and management principles.


For some interesting information on Standard Weights for Largemouth Bass and the Sizes of Forage/Fodder fish that a Largemouth Bass can swallow, click on the links.


So, now you probably want to know where to get your hands on some Bass fingerlings and fodder fish for the Bass!



Remember that small fingerlings are easier to transport than larger specimens and generally have a better survival rate when transplanting to other waters. Fingerlings have an opportunity to "grow into", acclimatize and adapt properly to a new environment. Larger fish with set patterns of behaviour may find the transition unduly stressful and may not survive.



4. Possible identification of Florida strain Bass fingerlings

Most people who really know something about Bass will tell you that it is only possible to positively identify the strain of Bass (Florida or Northern) by means of genetic testing.


Some time ago I asked a question on the website and received an interesting answer. The guys at Pondboss (Bob Lusk and Mark Mc Donald) are most knowledgeable and trustworthy. These guys have years of experience with Bass and breed both the Florida and Northern strains at their Texoma hatchery. Here is my question and Bob Lusk's response:  


I noticed that all the Largemouth Bass fingerlings I obtained some time ago have what seems like a thinnish, but very noticeable black line or "trim" on the outer edge of their tail fins. This is and has been visible on all the fingerlings which range from about 2" - 6" in length. These Bass also have a very dark dorsal area. The dark backs (almost black) and the distinct tailfin "trim" are very visible when viewing the fingerlings in the water. These fingerlings were said to be Florida strain. [For your info, obtained from Pieter Lombard in the Eastern Free State]

Largemouth Bass fingerlings (no convincing claims made about these) acquired from another hatchery on an earlier occasion [for your info, obtained from Casper Kruger, Hartbeespoort Fisheries] had a lighter dorsal area and definitely no black tailfin "trim". The tail fins were almost transparent in fingerlings of 2" - 4" in length.

In relation to other bass fingerlings of different sizes (from 2" - 6") and some subadult fish of 10" - 12" I noticed and carefully watched in the relatively clear waters of a quarry in our area (Mafikeng) that most fingerlings did not have the black tailfin "trim". Bass from various sources have found their way into this quarry ...

Any comments on the black tailfin "trim"? Is it just a natural colour variation or can more significance be attached to it (possibly Florida strain genes?)



That thin line is absolutely characteristic of Florida bass. [good news and my gut-feeling confirmed!] Biologists are careful not to come to the conclusion that all bass with thin black lines are Florida strain, but it certainly is a characteristic.

Another characteristic of Florida strain bass is dark mottling dorsally. Looks like camo. Do people wear camo in S. Africa?

Very likely ... you at least have diversity of your bass gene pool. And that's good.".  

Food for thought and, possibly a quick way to check if those fingerlings have Florida strain genes!



5. Ideas on constructing Bass Dams

For some ideas on the construction of Dams suitable for Bass, click here. This link is a "must" - it has a wealth of relevant information (gleaned from, amongst others, Bob Lusk from Pond Boss and Ray Scott who started B.A.S.S.) in the form of on-line articles, books and videos …





*6.1 FLORIDA strain BASS

Pieter Lombard

PO Box 98, WARDEN 9890

Free State Province

Tel.: (058) 913-2924; 082-494-2822


Speak to Pieter or Suretha who will assist you. They really know and love Bass and you will be impressed with their dedication, professionalism and friendliness.


This hatchery is located 120km north of Harrismith near new N3 toll road to Warden and Durban. Take the Reitz/ Roadside turnoff on the N3, follow the road to Reitz (dirt road). After 11,8km turn left onto the Warden/ Oakville road. After 1,9km turn left at the Lombard and van der Westhuizen signboards. The house is about 1km down the road.


Fingerlings available: mid Nov – mid Dec of each year (order well in advance)

R135-00/ 100 25mm fingerlings

200 fingerlings packed per 10in x 10in box in Oxygen gas and water-filled plastic bags will survive for 8 - 12 hours


I highly recommend this private hatchery. The fingerlings (guaranteed Florida strain) are lively and healthy and are fed live daphnia every 2 hours. They transport extremely well and have the best survival rate I have yet come across.


As from 2007, Pieter also has Vlei Kurper (Tilapia sparrmanii) - also known as Banded Tilapia - available, probably the most suitable fodder fish for Bass in Southern Africa. He will soon offer Smallmouth Yellowfish (Labeobarbus aeneus) as well.



6.2 REDBREAST KURPER (Tilapia rendalli) and BLUE/ MOZAMBIQUE KURPER (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Ken Konschel



Tel.: (035) 772-4584; 082-852-8588

Ken is able to supply all sizes from 50 - 70g right up to adult fish.



6.3 FLORIDA strain BASS

Dr Wynand Uys

Blyde River Aquaculture, PO Box 408, HOEDSPRUIT 1380

Tel.: (015) 795-5250

Fingerlings available: Nov – Jan (reportedly from ex Natal Parks Board Florida Bass)


R200/ 100 fingerlings

I do not yet have personal experience with this hatchery. Other species of fish are also available.


Heard on 22 April 2003 that this hatchery may have closed down!




Mr Pierre de Villiers

Gariep Nature Reserve, Gariep Dam, Free State Province

Tel.: (051) 754-0026; 083-236-2924

Fax.: (051) 403-3023



30c/ fingerling available March/April

Apart from largemouth and smallmouth yellowfish, various mudfish (Labeo) species are also available. As this is a Provincial hatchery, prices per fingerling are really low! 


Just don't tell Pierre that you want the smallmouth yellows as supplementary "fodder fish" for Bass 'cause he will throw a fit! Strange, because smallmouth yellows (unlike the largemouth yellows) will breed well in dams without running water and can rather easily be bred in hatcheries, so there is no danger of (largemouth and Florida strain) Bass ever permanently affecting populations of smallmouth yellowfish adversely. Re-introducing or spreading smallmouth yellowfish in closed impoundments or any dam linked to the Orange-Vaal system where smallmouth yellowfish are endemic can never a bad idea. So just get the smallmouth yellowfish if you can.


I have just found out there is currently a moratorium (which has been extended for a further year until about April 2005?) on the stocking of all yellowfish species in South Africa. Click here for details. The scientific names for yellowfish have also been updated. If you are interested, go here.


"Yellowfish Working Groups" have also been formed in an attempt to protect the genetic purity of the various yellowfish species across the country and to re-establish yellowfish populations in rivers across South Africa. This is a positive development.




Mr Casper Kruger

Tel.: (012) 259-1231; 083-315-8707

Largemouth Bass (Northern strain): R100/ 100

Ghieleminkies/ Minnows: R80/ 100

Blue, Redbreast, Vlei, Dwarf and Nile (Niloticus) Kurper: R110/ 100


This hatchery is a good source for minnows and the various kurper species.


Just make sure they add pure (100%) oxygen gas to the plastic bags of water they put the fingerlings in, otherwise they will not last past about 2 hours. With the pure oxygen gas, you should lose no fingerlings even past 10 hours.


Contrary to what you may be told or believe, I believe that this particular hatchery does not have the Florida strain Bass.


Only knowing the true source of brood stock Bass (the former Natal Parks Board imported the first and, as far as I am aware, the only Florida strain fingerlings in the early eighties) or performing genetic testing will guarantee whether a specific Largemouth Bass is Florida strain or Northern strain. Not even an expert can tell the two apart from a superficial external examination, but read in the article above how you can be reasonably sure of identifying the presence of Florida strain genes in fingerlings merely by looking at their tail fins! Bass of 5kg plus could be either pure Florida strain or Florida/Northern hybrids. A pure Northern strain Bass only rarely reaches 4kg.


Small scale and Large scale Yellowfish are also sometimes available from this source at a price.




Mr Frans Mouton

Tel.: (021) 889-1560; 083-477-0804

Situated in Stellenbosch, Western Cape. Rainbow Trout, Blue and Vlei Kurper are available. Phone for prices.


Dean Impson (082-962-3620) would have information about the Witvis (Labeobarbus andrewi) breeding plan in the Western Cape.




Situated at Nagle Dam, KwaZulu-Natal.


Various Kurper species and Florida strain Bass were to have been available and indications (in 2001/ 2002) were that this hatchery may, in future, consider breeding the Natal Scaly (Barbus natalensis).


The latest info is that (as at 10 February 2003) absolutely nothing is going on at the Nagle hatchery. Rather sad if one recalls that the former Natal Parks Board did so much with Florida Bass and Bream coming from this hatchery in the past! Now you can't even buy a single fingerling of any species at any price!


Jerry Mngomezulu, the Msinsi resort manager at Nagle informs me that plans are afoot to start some fish breeding programme involving the local community and the Amakhosi (tribal chiefs) in the area, but no dates have been set. Apparently the consulation process is still in progress and advertisements for tenders have to be placed. Jerry may be contacted at (031) 782-8085 or 082-664-6324.




Live trout are available from Giant's Cup Hatchery in Underberg, KwaZulu-Natal Different sizes of Rainbows and Browns from 25mm to over 300mm at varying prices. Just for the record, this hatchery has what looks like very reasonable prices! For Bass fodder as explained above, Rainbow Trout from 150mm - 175mm - 200mm max would be ideal Bass "snacks"!


In the Western Cape, try Cape Trout for live Rainbows as per your specs delivered to anywhere in the country. 


Also try Dewdale Trout Fishery (near Franschhoek, Western Cape). Speak to Gareth Hopkins at (021) 876-2755 or 083-481-3675.


Trout hatcheries are also to be found in most other provinces of South Africa, notably, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and the Eastern Cape. It should really pose no problem at all to get hold of live trout (if you can afford them and pay for the transport costs).


Just a tip: It would probably be wise not to mention to the suppliers that you need the trout for Bass fodder ...




For high quality trout and tilapia pellets (38%; 42% and 52% protein) contact WPK AQUA FEEDS in Malmesbury, Western Cape: (022) 482-8000 (Dirk); See their website at


Although Bass will not take pellets (usually), the additional feed will result in larger numbers of healthier "fodder fish" which will breed more often having positive effects on Bass growth and health as there will be a steady stream of small fish for the Bass to feed on.


Epol supplies Farmix 38% protein trout pellets in 50kg bags. Contact tel. numbers are (011) 886-0982 and (012) 386-0469.


Also check out: Aquanutro for trout and tilapia pellets.




If you need the professional services of a fish biologist or fish conservation consultant (specializing in indigenous fish conservation), contact Mike Coke (ex Natal Parks Board) at (033) 344-2789 (phone and fax) or PO Box 21525, MAYOR'S WALK 3208.


Mike works primarily in KwaZulu-Natal and has access to electro-shocking equipment to sample and determine fish populations without adverse effects to the fish. This is a better option than netting as some fish are notoriously adept at escaping from or jumping over nets whilst injuries and fatalities to the fish can also be expected from the netting procedure. Nets are also not effective in waters which have abundant weed or plant growth and other structure.




If you need the professional services of an aquaculture consultant (general fish farming and with specialist knowledge of Bass rearing) contact Tom Pike (ex Natal Parks Board) at (033) 330-4368 (phone and fax) or 17 Holliday Road, MERRIVALE 3291.


Tom played an important part in the introduction of the Florida strain Largemouth Bass to South Africa more than 20 years ago.




If you need the services of a fish biologist, contact Stuart Slabbert (083-445-0414).





This is "The" site to visit!


Got questions about how to manage your pond, fish and the wildlife around them? Fisheries biologists and consultants Don Keller and Barry Smith have the answers - all conveniently compiled on the pages of the new Southern Ponds and Wildlife magazine.


Website of Greg Grimes, Pondboss Forum regular. Lots of useful info.




Florida Fisheries


Aquaculture Network Information Centre


    GIANT'S CUP Wild Trout (Rainbows and Browns) Hatchery (KZN, South Africa)


Aquaculture Association of South Africa

All content copyright